There are four basic ways a divisionally structured firm could be organized. What are these four ways? Give an example of each. The four basic ways a divisionally structured firm could be organized are 1) by geographic area. An example of this would be any organization with similar branch facilities located in widely dispersed areas; 2) by product or service. Huffy is an example of divisional structure by product; 3) by customer. Book publishing companies often organize their activities around customer groups as college, secondary schools and private commercial schools; and 4) by process.An example of this is a manufacturing business organized into six divisions: electrical work, glass cutting, welding, grinding, painting and foundry work. Each division would be responsible for generating revenues and profits. Compare and contrast restructuring and reengineering. Restructuring involves reducing the size of the firm in terms of number of employees, number of divisions or units and number of hierarchical levels in the firmâ€™s organizational structure. Restructuring is concerned primarily with shareholder well-being rather than employee well-being.In contrast, reengineering is concerned more with employee and customer well-being than shareholder well-being. Reengineering involves reconfiguring or redesigning work, jobs and processes for the purpose of improving cost, quality, service and speed. Whereas restructuring is concerned with eliminating or establishing, shrinking or enlarging, and moving organizational departments and divisions, the focus of reengineering is changing the way work is actually carried out. Reengineering is characterized by many tactical decisions, whereas restructuring is characterized by strategic decisions.
There is no definition of abnormal psychological which has approval by the psychological social groups. Although, knowing of ones abnormal mindset is essential in assessing personal behaviors in determining what is intended (Hansell & Damour, 2008). Abnormal social content is often looked upon as personal behavior opposing to social normality. This structure is essential in analizing the abnormal mindset and focus to accurately filter conduct presented whether unusual or usual. This paper will determine the start of what presents abnormal mindset and how the developement is originated for use scientifically. Lastly, the paper will inspect the psychodynamic, humanistic and existential, behavioral, cognitive, sociocultural, family support and biological theoretical areas important to the strength of abnormal psychology. Origins of Abnormal Psychology The development of abnormal mindset can be transcribed for thousands of years. To this date, people have evolved in specified cases of undesired conduct. Historically, unusual conduct is seen as biological, psychological outcomes seen also as supernatural factors (Hansell & Damour, 2008). The observation of unusual conduct is often believed individuals acknowledge the idea of depletion of bad spirits, devils, and intities (Hansell & Damour, 2008). As far back as the Mesolithic period, normal practices of torture would be practiced to those who displayed unusual conduct to be pardoned. Additionally, the use of exorcisms was performed to extinguish the existance of paranormal activities. Additionally, in the Roman era the chemicals in an individuals head would be released to extinguish the individuals from unusual conduct. This tyoe of consequence was passed on into the Dark Ages; Europeans viewed this conduct as psychological disease which drew evil spirits to such individuals for possession. Torture was practiced on individuals who presented unusual behaviors, and was common to relinquish an evil spirt for centuries. Challenges to Defining and Classifying Normal and Abnormal Behavior Though an individual can present unusual conduct, he or she is viewed as one who violates expectations or rules in a society or culture (Hansell & Damour, 2008). A lack of understanding is particularly notable because of various traditions and culture is viewed differently in consideration of the beliefs of certain traditions. An example is, a typical American will eat at a fast food chain for a quick bite at the work place, whereas many cultures from euopean all the way to middle eastern will bring his or her ethnic food to ingest, but do not condone this type of conduct. On the flip side, woman in the Middle East receive harsh abuse and it is not against the law for men to treat woman this way, but in the United States it is against the law for men to abuse their woman and he will receive a criminal offense for such behavior. In other words, it depends on the culture to consider if the unusual conduct violates law or social acknowledgement, decisions are relatively complex from area to area. Unusual conduct can affect people negatively presently, but may be viewed as usual conduct in the future. How Abnormal Psychology has evolved into a Scientific Discipline The scientific element concept within the unusuwl aspects of psychology was developed by Hippocrates, a greek doctor. Hippocrates believed biological patterns are responsible for such unusual conduct. Hippocrates believed through biological cause an individual will be more likely to be cured from such illness. Also, Hippocrates referred the brain as a componant being responsible for an individualâ€™s intelligence, awareness and cleverness. With such reference, these components play a significant role in how an individual displays his or her conduct (Hansell & Damour, 2008). Historically, thousands of years ago, individuals who displayed unusual conduct were labled as witches, or unusual conduct would draw in devils. The frequent attendance of church would increase because of the severity of such fear of evil. Following, the enligtenment era develoloped where unusual conduct was analysed throughly before considered a consequence for various discrepancies of an individuals brain functions, an acceptance was generally regarded as a psychological disease that accounted for the use of various remedies that were implemented (Hansell & Damour, 2008). Development of Abnormal Psychology: Biological and Theoretical Perspectives Unusual psychology on a biological viewpoint invests with the unusual acts that rooy from an inbalance within the brain. The use of psychotropic medications are used on a theraputic regimen to help elliviate symptoms; additionally, treatments used such as electro- convolsive therapy , and psychdynamic hypothisis to aid human contact on influences psychological through the unconscious mind (Hansell & Damour, 2008). For most part, an individualâ€™s conduct is essential and is charactorized from a previous experience. Psychoanalysis is used as an approach in the theraputic needs. The use of the behavioral model is essential when conditioning is relevent. Depending on the situation, the use of operant and classical conditioning are considered (Hansell & Damour, 2008). Therefore, unusual conduct, and its reactives are performed to elleviate psychological disorders through the conditiining process and behavioral therapy to cure such disorder. In the 1960s, Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck implemented the cognitive approach to establish cognitive function using procedures to open conduct, stimulate ideas, feelings which establish personality and individual attitudes (Hansell & Damour, 2008).